Why Elon Musk Couldn’t Save Free Speech

Annotated Bibliography

In writing my videos, I draw on a plethora of sources including books, academic journals and journalistic writing such as newspaper and magazine articles.

Rather than simply dump a list of article titles and links (and in an attempt to make the below bibliography as useful as possible to those interested in reading further), I’ve arranged the resources referenced in the script to this video into themed sections.

Furthermore, I have highlighted a handful of the resources below in bold.

In most instances, this indicates that they are relatively engaging and accessible to those with limited pre-existing knowledge of the topic they discuss. This does not mean that other sources are not well written(!) or that the highlighted resources are not in-depth, it’s simply a subjective indication of the books/papers/articles that I thought you were most likely to find helpful at one moment in time!

Exceptions to this are instances where I mentioned a source numerous times or engaged with it for an extended amount of time during the video, in which case I have also highlighted that source.

The Elon Musk Twitter Acquisition Saga

Balu, Nivedita. ‘Musk Takes 9% Stake in Twitter to Become Top Shareholder, Starts Poll on Edit Button’. Reuters, 5 April 2022, sec. Technology. https://www.reuters.com/technology/musk-discloses-92-stake-twitter-2022-04-04/.

BBC News. ‘Elon Musk Pulls out of $44bn Deal to Buy Twitter’. BBC News, 9 July 2022, sec. Business. https://www.bbc.com/news/business-62102821.

———. ‘Meet Twitter’s Second Biggest Shareholder, Saudi Prince Alwaleed Bin Talal’. BBC News, 8 October 2015, sec. Newsbeat. https://www.bbc.com/news/newsbeat-34474798.

Black, Julia. ‘Elon Musk Had Twins Last Year with One of His Top Executives’. Business Insider, 6 July 2022. https://www.businessinsider.com/elon-musk-shivon-zilis-secret-twins-neuralink-tesla.

Brand, Russell. The REAL Reason They Hate Musk. Online Video. YouTube, 2022. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Qui-0bVzrc.

De Avila, Joseph, and Will Feuer. ‘Elon Musk Is No Longer Twitter’s Largest Shareholder’. The Wall Street Journal, 14 April 2022. https://www.wsj.com/livecoverage/elon-musk-twitter/card/elon-musk-is-no-longer-twitter-s-largest-shareholder-BNwzaP8JDQLlUc6yAJBb.

D’Souza, Dinesh. ‘BREAKING: Project Veritas Leaks Video from Twitter’s “all Hands” Meeting with Elon Musk’. Twitter, 16 June 2022. https://twitter.com/dineshdsouza/status/1537543771423924226.

Elon Musk Talks Twitter, Tesla and How His Brain Works — Live at TED2022. Online Video. YouTube, 2022. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cdZZpaB2kDM.

Farage, Nigel. ‘For Years I Would Gain 30,000 New Twitter Followers per Month and Most Tweets Would Get 5,000+ Retweets. Now I’ve Had Zero Growth for 18 Months & Engagement Is at an All-Time Low. It’s the Same for Thousands of Others. Twitter’s Algorithm Now Needs to Change — and Change Fast!’ Twitter, 26 April 2022. https://twitter.com/nigel_farage/status/1518980974587138048.

———. ‘When a Prime Minister Is Roundly Booed by the Crowd on a National Thanksgiving Day, You Know It’s All Over.’ Twitter, 4 June 2022. https://twitter.com/nigel_farage/status/1533063949884825602.

FULL CALL: Twitter All Hands with Elon Musk 6/16/22. Online Video. YouTube, 2022. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FLvTcRrzy20.FULL INTERVIEW: Elon Musk Sits Down With The Babylon Bee. Online Video. YouTube, 2021. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jvGnw1sHh9M.

Giridharadas, Anand. ‘Elon Musk Is a Problem Masquerading as a Solution’. The New York Times, 26 April 2022, sec. Opinion. https://www.nytimes.com/2022/04/26/opinion/elon-musk-twitter.html.

Hawkins, John, and Michael James Walsh. ‘What Will Elon Musk’s Ownership of Twitter Mean for “Free Speech” on the Platform?’ The Conversation, 26 April 2022. http://theconversation.com/what-will-elon-musks-ownership-of-twitter-mean-for-free-speech-on-the-platform-181626.

Johnson, Benny. ‘Project Veritas LEAKS Video from Twitter’s “all Hands” Meeting with Elon Musk’. Twitter, 17 June 2022. https://twitter.com/bennyjohnson/status/1537593384004558848.

McHugh, Rich. ‘A SpaceX Flight Attendant Said Elon Musk Exposed Himself and Propositioned Her for Sex, Documents Show. The Company Paid $250,000 for Her Silence.’ Business Insider, 19 May 2022. https://www.businessinsider.com/spacex-paid-250000-to-a-flight-attendant-who-accused-elon-musk-of-sexual-misconduct-2022-5.

Molloy, Parker. ‘Elon Musk’s No Good, Very Bad Meme Shows How out of Touch He Is with Political Reality’. NBC News, 30 April 2022. https://www.nbcnews.com/think/opinion/elon-musks-twitter-meme-shows-touch-reality-rcna26669.

Musk, Elon. ‘Am Giving Serious Thought to This’. Twitter, 27 March 2022. https://twitter.com/elonmusk/status/1507907130124222471.

———. ‘Do You Want an Edit Button?’ Twitter, 5 April 2022. https://twitter.com/elonmusk/status/1511143607385874434.

———. ‘Free Speech Is Essential to a Functioning Democracy. Do You Believe Twitter Rigorously Adheres to This Principle?’ Twitter, 25 May 2022. https://twitter.com/elonmusk/status/1507259709224632344.

———. ‘Starlink Has Been Told by Some Governments (Not Ukraine) to Block Russian News Sources. We Will Not Do so Unless at Gunpoint. Sorry to Be a Free Speech Absolutist.’ Twitter, 5 March 2022. https://twitter.com/elonmusk/status/1499976967105433600.

———. ‘Twitter Deal Temporarily on Hold Pending Details Supporting Calculation That Spam/Fake Accounts Do Indeed Represent Less than 5% of Users’. Twitter, 13 May 2022. https://twitter.com/elonmusk/status/1525049369552048129.

Neate, Rupert, and Kari Paul. ‘Elon Musk Offers to Buy Twitter for More than $40bn’. The Guardian, 14 April 2022, sec. Technology. https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2022/apr/14/elon-musk-buy-twitter-share.

Nolan, Lucas. ‘Project Veritas Leaks Elon Musk’s All-Hands Meeting with Twitter’. Breitbart, 17 June 2022. https://www.breitbart.com/tech/2022/06/17/project-veritas-leaks-elon-musks-all-hands-meeting-with-twitter/.

Read, Max. ‘Elon Musk Won’t Fix Twitter (but He Won’t Kill It, Either)’. Substack newsletter. Read Max (blog), 26 April 2022. https://maxread.substack.com/p/elon-musk-wont-fix-twitter-but-he.

@remonwagxt. ‘發現有傻逼做這種事,非要把我的簽名抹去發圖,無論中國人還是老外,做這種事的都是傻逼’. Twitter, 25 April 2022. https://twitter.com/remonwangxt/status/1518668321381617671.

Reuters. ‘Musk Targets Twitter Board as Company Adopts “Poison Pill”’. Reuters, 18 April 2022, sec. Business. https://www.reuters.com/business/musk-tweets-love-me-tender-days-after-twitter-takeover-offer-2022-04-18/.

Richter, Felix. ‘Infographic: Has Twitter Reached Its Natural Growth Limit?’ statista, 24 April 2019. https://www.statista.com/chart/10460/twitter-user-growth/.

Stephen, Bijan. ‘The Gospel of Elon Musk, According to His Flock’. The Verge, 26 June 2018. https://www.theverge.com/2018/6/26/17505744/elon-musk-fans-tesla-spacex-fandom.

The Wall Street Journal. ‘Read the Letter and Text Musk Sent to Twitter’. The Wall Street Journal, 14 April 2022. https://www.wsj.com/livecoverage/elon-musk-twitter/card/read-the-letter-and-text-musk-sent-to-twitter-56jnTcZJLIwaTp4CNrKl.

Twitter, Inc. ‘Elon Musk to Acquire Twitter’. Cision PR Newswire, 25 April 2022. https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/elon-musk-to-acquire-twitter-301532245.html.

———. ‘Twitter Announces Fourth Quarter and Fiscal Year 2020 Results’. Cision PR Newswire, 9 February 2021. https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/twitter-announces-fourth-quarter-and-fiscal-year-2020-results-301225278.html.

———. ‘Twitter Announces Fourth Quarter and Fiscal Year 2021 Results’. Cision PR Newswire, 10 February 2022. https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/twitter-announces-fourth-quarter-and-fiscal-year-2021-results-301479494.html.

U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. ‘Elon Musk Settles SEC Fraud Charges; Tesla Charged With and Resolves Securities Law Charge’. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, 29 September 2018. https://www.sec.gov/news/press-release/2018-226.

Freedom of Speech and Freedom of Expression

Berlin, Isaiah. ‘Two Concepts of Liberty’. In Liberty, edited by Henry Hardy, 166–217. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Congress.gov. ‘Constitution of the United States: First Amendment’. Constitution Annotated, n.d. https://constitution.congress.gov/constitution/amendment-1/.

Council of Europe. ‘European Convention on Human Rights’. European Court of Human Rights, 2021. https://www.echr.coe.int/documents/convention_eng.pdf.

Gwinnett, Button, Lyman Hall, George Walton, William Hooper, Joseph Hewes, John Penn, Edward Rutledge, et al. ‘Declaration of Independence: A Transcription’. National Archives, 8 June 2022. https://www.archives.gov/founding-docs/declaration-transcript.

Muhlenberg, Frederick Augustus, John Adams, John Beckley, and Sam. A Otis. ‘The Bill of Rights: A Transcription’. National Archives, 4 November 2015. https://www.archives.gov/founding-docs/bill-of-rights-transcript.

Peters, Jeremy W. ‘First Amendment Scholars Want to See the Media Lose These Cases’. The New York Times, 13 March 2022, sec. Business. https://www.nytimes.com/2022/03/13/business/media/fox-news-first-amendment-sullivan.html.

The Public Sphere (or the “Marketplace of Ideas”)

Diamonstein, Barbaralee D. ‘We Have Had Abortions’. Ms., 1972.

Franks, Mary Anne. ‘Beyond the Public Square: Imagining Digital Democracy’. The Yale Law Journal Forum 131 (2021): 427–53.

Fraser, Nancy. ‘Rethinking the Public Sphere: A Contribution to the Critique of Actually Existing Democracy’. Social Text, no. 25/26 (1990): 56. https://doi.org/10.2307/466240.

Habermas, Jürgen. ‘The Public Sphere: An Encyclopedia Article (1964)’. Translated by Sara Lennox and Frank Lennox. New German Critique, no. 3 (1974): 49. https://doi.org/10.2307/487737.

———. The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society. Translated by Thomas Burger. Cambridge: Polity, 2011.


Hamilton. Online Video. Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures, 2020.

Hobsbawm, Eric. The Age of Revolution: 1789 -1848. History Greats. London: Abacus, 1977.

Holmes Jr., Oliver Wendell. ‘Abrams v. United States (1919)’. In Documents of American Constitutional & Legal History: Volume Two: The Age of Industrialization to the Present, edited by Melvin I. Urofsky, First Edition., 2:100–104. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1989.

hooks, bell. Ain’t I A Woman: Black Women and Feminism. London: Left Book Club, 2021.

Kirby, Philip. ‘Leading People 2016: The Educational Backgrounds of the UK Professional Elite’. The Sutton Trust, February 2016. https://www.suttontrust.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/01/Leading-People_Feb16.pdf.

Marx, Karl, and Friedrich Engels. The Communist Manifesto. Translated by Samuel Moore. Penguin Little Black Classics Edition. Penguin Little Black Classics 20. London: Penguin Classics, 2015.

McKee, Alan. The Public Sphere: An Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Popper, Karl R. The Open Society and Its Enemies. New One-Volume Edition. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2013.

Shackle, Samira. ‘The Problem with the Marketplace of Ideas Is That It Is More like an Oligarchy of Ideas’. New Humanist, 27 November 2019. https://newhumanist.org.uk/articles/5529/the-problem-with-the-marketplace-of-ideas-is-that-it-is-more-like-an-oligarchy-of-ideas.

Thurman, Neil, Alessio Cornia, and Jessica Kunert. Journalists in the UK. Oxford: Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism, University of Oxford, 2016.

Wood, Gordon S. ‘Conspiracy and the Paranoid Style: Causality and Deceit in the Eighteenth Century’. The William and Mary Quarterly 39, no. 3 (July 1982): 401. https://doi.org/10.2307/1919580.

The Digital Public Sphere

Barbrook, Richard, and Andy Cameron. ‘The Californian Ideology’. Science as Culture 6, no. 1 (January 1996): 44–72. https://doi.org/10.1080/09505439609526455.

Bierut, Michael. ‘The Poster That Launched a Movement (Or Not)’. Design Observer, 30 April 2012. http://designobserver.com/feature/the-poster-that-launched-a-movement-or-not/32588.

Brin, Sergey, and Lawrence Page. ‘The Anatomy of a Large-Scale Hypertextual Web Search Engine’. Computer Networks and ISDN Systems 30, no. 1–7 (April 1998): 107–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-7552(98)00110-X.

Cinelli, Matteo, Gianmarco De Francisci Morales, Alessandro Galeazzi, Walter Quattrociocchi, and Michele Starnini. ‘The Echo Chamber Effect on Social Media’. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 118, no. 9 (2 March 2021): e2023301118. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2023301118.

Dewey, Caitlin. ‘The Only Guide to Gamergate You Will Ever Need to Read’. The Washington Post. 14 October 2014, sec. Internet Culture. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-intersect/wp/2014/10/14/the-only-guide-to-gamergate-you-will-ever-need-to-read/.

Feloni, Richard. ‘Google’s HR Boss Explains Why the Company Can Never Live up to Its Mission Statement, and Doesn’t Want To’. Business Insider, 17 April 2015. https://www.businessinsider.com/laszlo-bock-on-google-mission-statement-2015-4.

Press, Gil. ‘Why Yahoo Lost And Google Won’. Forbes, 26 July 2016. https://www.forbes.com/sites/gilpress/2016/07/26/why-yahoo-lost-and-google-won/.

York, Jillian. Silicon Values: The Future of Free Speech Under Surveillance Capitalism. London: Verso, 2021.

The History of Social Media

Arrington, Michael. ‘Screenshots And Details On Upcoming MySpace “News Feeds”’. TechCrunch (blog), 27 November 2007. https://social.techcrunch.com/2007/11/26/screenshots-and-details-on-upcoming-myspace-news-feeds/.

Lorenz, Taylor. ‘The Facebook Wall Is Dead — and Facebook Is Struggling to Get Personal Again’. Mic, 10 May 2017. https://www.mic.com/articles/176599/the-facebook-wall-is-dead-social-network-struggles-to-get-personal-again.

Lotz, Amanda. ‘Amazon, Google and Facebook Warrant Antitrust Scrutiny for Many Reasons – Not Just Because They’re Large’. The Conversation, 24 June 2019. http://theconversation.com/amazon-google-and-facebook-warrant-antitrust-scrutiny-for-many-reasons-not-just-because-theyre-large-118370.

Manjoo, Farhad. ‘Facebook News Feed Changed Everything’. Slate, 12 September 2013. https://slate.com/technology/2013/09/facebook-news-feed-turns-7-why-its-the-most-influential-feature-on-the-internet.html.

Nicholas, Tom. The Metaverse: A Guide to the Future of Capitalism. Online Video. YouTube, 2021. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TM00M-dRMBk.

Content Moderation and the Law

Legal Information Institute. ‘47 U.S. Code § 230 – Protection for Private Blocking and Screening of Offensive Material’, 2018. https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/47/230.

De Streel, Alexandre, Elise Defreyne, Hervé Jacquemin, Michèle Ledger, Alejandra Michel, Alessandra Innesti, Marion Goubet, and Dawid Ustowski. Online Platforms’ Moderation of Illegal Content Online: Law, Practices and Options for Reform. Luxembourg: European Parliament, 2020. https://data.europa.eu/doi/10.2861/831734.

Doctorow, Cory. ‘Europe’s Digital Services Act: On a Collision Course With Human Rights’. Electronic Frontier Foundation, 27 October 2021. https://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2021/10/europes-digital-services-act-collision-course-human-rights-0.

———. ‘The Good News: The Proposal Requires Due Process for Content Removal – Not a System Where Filters Remove Your Content in an Eyeblink and Then You Spend Months or Years in Autoresponder Hell Trying to Get It Back up. 6/’. Twitter, 15 December 2020. https://twitter.com/doctorow/status/1338889213190651904.

European Commission. ‘The Digital Services Act Package’. European Commission, 7 June 2022. https://digital-strategy.ec.europa.eu/en/policies/digital-services-act-package.

McMorris, Frances A. ‘Ex-Officers of Stratton Oakmont Plead Guilty to Fraud, Laundering’. Wall Street Journal, 24 September 1999, sec. Marketplace. https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB938130086664487472.

Actually-Existing Content Moderation

Alexander, Julia. ‘The Golden Age of YouTube Is Over’. The Verge, 5 April 2019. https://www.theverge.com/2019/4/5/18287318/youtube-logan-paul-pewdiepie-demonetization-adpocalypse-premium-influencers-creators.

Auerbach, David. ‘If You Can’t Stop It, Hide It’. Slate, 21 April 2015. https://slate.com/technology/2015/04/twitters-new-abuse-policy-if-it-cant-stop-it-hide-it.html.

BBC News. ‘Lese-Majeste Explained: How Thailand Forbids Insult of Its Royalty’. BBC News, 6 October 2017, sec. Asia. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-29628191.

———. ‘Thailand Backs off Lese-Majeste Facebook Ban Threat’. BBC News, 16 May 2017, sec. Asia. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-39931816.

Bell, Karissa. ‘The Day Facebook and Twitter’s Rules Applied to Donald Trump’. Engadget, 8 January 2021. https://www.engadget.com/facebook-and-twitter-trump-suspensions-173002449.html.

Buni, Catherine, and Soraya Chemaly. ‘The Secret Rules of the Internet’. The Verge, 13 April 2016. https://www.theverge.com/2016/4/13/11387934/internet-moderator-history-youtube-facebook-reddit-censorship-free-speech.

Dixon, S. ‘Facebook Ad Revenue 2009-2020’. Statista, 18 February 2022. https://www.statista.com/statistics/271258/facebooks-advertising-revenue-worldwide/.

Dunphy, Rachel. ‘Can YouTube Survive the Adpocalypse?’ Intelligencer, 28 December 2017. https://nymag.com/intelligencer/2017/12/can-youtube-survive-the-adpocalypse.html.

Goldman, Rob. ‘Hard Questions: What Information Do Facebook Advertisers Know About Me?’ Meta (blog), 23 April 2018. https://about.fb.com/news/2018/04/data-and-advertising/.

Halliday, Josh. ‘Twitter’s Tony Wang: “We Are the Free Speech Wing of the Free Speech Party”’. The Guardian, 22 March 2012, sec. Media. https://www.theguardian.com/media/2012/mar/22/twitter-tony-wang-free-speech.

Kaye, David. Speech Police: The Global Struggle to Govern the Internet. New York: Columbia Global Reports, 2019.

Klonick, Kate. ‘The New Governors: The People, Rules, and Processes Governing Online Speech’. Harvard Law Review 131, no. 6 (2018): 1598–1670.

PinkNews. ‘Facebook Is Blocking This Video of Thailand’s King in a Crop Top’. PinkNews, 9 May 2017, sec. World. https://www.pinknews.co.uk/2017/05/09/facebook-is-blocking-this-video-of-thailands-king-bodindradebayavarangkun-in-a-crop-top/.

Ratcliffe, Rebecca. ‘Facebook Blocks Access to Group Criticising Thailand’s Monarchy’. The Guardian, 25 August 2020, sec. World news. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/aug/24/facebook-blocks-access-group-criticising-thailand-monarchy.

Solon, Olivia. ‘Google’s Bad Week: YouTube Loses Millions as Advertising Row Reaches US’. The Observer, 25 March 2017, sec. Technology. https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2017/mar/25/google-youtube-advertising-extremist-content-att-verizon.

Suciu, Peter. ‘Do Social Media Companies Have The Right To Silence The Masses – And Is This Censoring The Government?’ Forbes, 11 January 2021. https://www.forbes.com/sites/petersuciu/2021/01/11/do-social-media-companies-have-the-right-to-silence-the-masses–and-is-this-censoring-the-government/.

Twitter, Inc. ‘Permanent Suspension of @realDonaldTrump’. Blog (blog), 8 January 2021. https://blog.twitter.com/en_us/topics/company/2020/suspension.

———. ‘Removal Requests’. Transparency, 2022. https://transparency.twitter.com/en/reports/removal-requests.html.

United Nations. ‘UN Human Rights Chief Points to “Textbook Example of Ethnic Cleansing” in Myanmar’. UN News (blog), 11 September 2017. https://news.un.org/en/story/2017/09/564622-un-human-rights-chief-points-textbook-example-ethnic-cleansing-myanmar.

Right-Wing Concerns Over Social Media “Censorship”

Alexander, Harriet. ‘Woke Twitter Staff Warn Bosses of “mass Exodus” When Musk Takes Over’. Mail Online, 28 April 2022, sec. News. https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-10761287/Woke-Twitter-staff-warn-firms-bosses-theyll-face-mass-exodus-workers-Musk-takes-over.html.

Ballard, Jamie. ‘Most Conservatives Believe Removing Content and Comments on Social Media Is Suppressing Free Speech’. YouGovAmerica, 29 April 2019. https://today.yougov.com/topics/technology/articles-reports/2019/04/29/content-moderation-social-media-free-speech-poll.

D’Souza, Dinesh. The Greatest Threat to Free Speech in America. Online Video. Facebook, 2020. https://www.facebook.com/DSouzaDinesh/videos/the-greatest-threat-to-free-speech-in-america/365399851386233/.

Mccloskey, Jimmy. ‘Elon Musk Will Address Woke Twitter Staff Angered by His Stock Buyup’. Mail Online, 8 April 2022, sec. News. https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-10698367/Elon-Musk-address-woke-Twitter-staff-infuriated-purchase-majority-stake.html.

Mccloskey, Jimmy and James Gordon. ‘Elon Musk Warns Woke Twitter Staff They Face “EXTREME” Workload’. Mail Online, 7 May 2022, sec. News. https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-10792767/Elon-Musk-warns-woke-Twitter-staff-face-EXTREME-workload-takes-over.html.

Miscellaneous

Bezos, Jeff. ‘We Had so Much Fun Last Night Celebrating with a Crazy Disco Party with Family, but the New Year Is Also a Great Time to Take Stock and Focus on Personal Growth, Renewal, Rebirth, and Paying Careful Attention to Each Moment of Your Life. The Good and the Bad. All of It. Celebrate and Grow.’ Instagram, 1 January 2022. https://www.instagram.com/accounts/login/?next=/p/CYMawuhF-bM/.

Chandler, Clare. ‘“Let Me Be a Part of the Narrative” — The Schuyler Sisters “Almost” Feminist?’ Contemporary Theatre Review (blog), 2018. https://www.contemporarytheatrereview.org/2018/chandler-hamilton-almost-feminist/.

Chibassy. ‘My Amphibian Soulmate’. Archive of Our Own, 15 May 2022. https://archiveofourown.org/works/39027636.

Derysh, Igor. ‘Joe Biden to Rich Donors: “Nothing Would Fundamentally Change” If He’s Elected’. Salon, 19 June 2019. https://www.salon.com/2019/06/19/joe-biden-to-rich-donors-nothing-would-fundamentally-change-if-hes-elected/.

Farhi, Paul. ‘Washington Post to Be Sold to Jeff Bezos, the Founder of Amazon’. Washington Post. 5 August 2013, sec. National. https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/washington-post-to-be-sold-to-jeff-bezos/2013/08/05/ca537c9e-fe0c-11e2-9711-3708310f6f4d_story.html.

Kellner, Peter. ‘Nigel Farage’. Encyclopedia Britannica, 30 March 2022. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Nigel-Farage.

Pethokoukis, James. ‘Why Does Silicon Valley Seem to Love Democrats and Dismiss the GOP? A Long-Read Q&A with Journalist Greg Ferenstein’. AEIdeas (blog), 25 May 2016. https://www.aei.org/economics/what-does-silicon-valley-seem-to-love-democrats-and-dimiss-the-gop-a-qa-with-journalist-greg-ferenstein/.

Schleifer, Theodore, and Rani Molla. ‘Silicon Valley Is Spending Millions More for Joe Biden than It Did for Hillary Clinton’. Vox, 30 October 2020. https://www.vox.com/recode/2020/10/30/21540616/silicon-valley-fundraising-donald-trump-joe-biden-analysis.

Shapiro, Ben. ‘As I Also Discussed on the Show, My Only Real Concern Is That the Women Involved — Who Apparently Require a “Bucket and a Mop” — Get the Medical Care They Require. My Doctor Wife’s Differential Diagnosis: Bacterial Vaginosis, Yeast Infection, or Trichomonis.’ Twitter, 10 August 2020. https://twitter.com/benshapiro/status/1292927011724304384.

Socialism For Dummies. Online Video. YouTube, 2015. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ysZC0JOYYWw.

Trickey, Erick. ‘Fact-Checking QAnon Conspiracy Theories: Did J.P. Morgan Sink the Titanic?’ Washington Post, 4 August 2018. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/retropolis/wp/2018/08/04/how-j-p-morgan-didnt-sink-the-titanic-and-other-qanon-conspiracy-theories-debunked/.

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